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In 1989, the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) sponsored a study by Pat McLagan. The study aimed at identifying the HRD roles and competencies needed for human resource departments to function effectively. It revealed that the focus of human resource had expanded from traditional training and development activities to include career development and organizational development issues (DeSimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). In the ASTD study, McLagan developed a model of HRD practice that he referred to as the “human resource wheel” (DeSimone et al., 2002, p. 11). The wheel, depicted in Fig. 1, shows the array of HRD and HRM functions revealed by the study.

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